What many had feared as “something we may eventually have to face in our lifetime” hit us far sooner than many thought it would and proliferated the globe with deadly speed and indiscriminate devastation. How we deal with the fallout, will define us for generations.
Last year we wrote about ushering in a new era in bathroom design. That was a reactive statement. We were passively responding to an outside force, which put a magnifying glass on our vulnerability and lack of flexibility to change fast enough. When you are forced to change, it is painful, expensive and is not sustainable.
We need to change before we have to so that so we are not caught off guard no matter what circumstances arise. We have dealt with a pandemic that has spread for the most part due to a function of space, mobility, connectivity, and an unequal ability or discipline to adhere to the solutions outlined by the medical profession and governments globally.
We have known of the spatial issues of a growing population and increasing densities, hyper connectedness and the fast movement of people around the world. But our systems and environment have not been designed to account for many of these challenges. In fact we have taken an opposite tack – we have made movement far easier, fostered our ability to connect and increased our ability to participate in events in large numbers. Design elements that have worked in the past will need to be altered and standards that we have taken for granted will need to be revisited.
We have a heightened focus on the need for safe environments, and we must find a way to weave that into the delicate balance that has been achieved between aesthetics, functionality, sustainability, efficiency, and productivity. There is a new and elevated baseline for design, and the metrics we have used to judge success are being re-written.
The best buildings have always been ones where every aspect of the structure is in simpatico with the other. Every design element is integrated with, and accentuates, the other. The energy efficiency of the building en
velope adds to the beauty of the facade. The inviting yet secure entrance leads to the fluidity and safety of the interior spaces. And the deliberate design that goes into the other parts of the building carries through to the bathrooms— because bathrooms are critical to the human experience.
For occupants that interact with a building on a daily basis, the bathroom is often the most used room in a building, and it can become the cornerstone for how the entire building is perceived.
Our built-in need for privacy is laid bare in public bathrooms, most of which are designed for multiple users and simultaneous use. Today more than ever before our need to feel safe is paramount and this can cause public bathrooms to bring out deep-rooted fears, which may manifest in a visceral response. While some people may be mildly bothered by the thought of using a public washroom, others are paralyzed by the prospect—to the point that they cannot use the washroom while it is occupied by others.
One-hundred percent of the opinion of the building can be affected by less than 1% of the cost of the building—and that is about what a bathroom costs.
One of the other problems central to the spread of the pandemic is that there was a local, fragmented response to a global problem. Collaboration will be key to our future. There needs to be collaboration within the construction industry between architects and product manufacturers, building owners and government entities and everyone in between.
Beyond that there also needs to be greater collaboration between architects on a global level. There is no point if there are stringent standards in a handful of countries while very low ones elsewhere. As evidenced by this pandemic we are only as strong as the weakest link. We have an opportunity to create new global standards for how we live, work, move, and thrive.
When the Model-T FORD began coming of the assembly line Mr. Ford famously noted that you can have any color you want as long as it is black. That doesn’t work anymore especially in the built environment.
Every building has a unique use type, and even different sections within the same building should be viewed through a different lens as it relates to the types of products and materials in bathrooms. So when shopping for washroom accessories, toilet partitions, or even lockers, one of the top criteria when choosing a manufacturer, should be determining whether or not they have every type of material and product in their category, so that you have a full suite of options with which to create your vision. Choice matters—make sure you have plenty of it. Collaborate with building product manufacturers that offer CHOICE
Let’s briefly go through a checklist to help you create a space that is both aesthetically pleasing as well as functionally appropriate. Below are some of the key elements that constitute good bathroom design, and we will explore how they intertwine.
This is not an optional attribute. Fortunately, privacy can be ensured with good design and proper installation. However, uneven floors or changes in wall dimensions during construction can cause gaps between the doors and pilasters, and can even cause locking mechanisms to get compromised if the stalls are installed askew. If there is concern of that happening, a good option would be to specify European-style partitions that are defined by extra height on both doors and panels, adjustable pedestals to accommodate for uneven floors, superior hardware, and routed edges at sightlines between doors and pilasters that eliminate visibility into the stalls.
Mitigating safety risks from hazards, such as wet floors, are a function of good design. One tip is to create an optimal ratio between sinks and the number of drying stations, as well as their location, to reduce the chances of water from dripping hands ending up on the floor.
Accessibility: Ensuring accessibility for people with every type of physical ability is fundamental. It is important to have a complete understanding of the intent of ADA codes that address issues like circulation path, maneuverability, clear floor space, reach ranges, mirror mounting height, and even door swings among others. If manufacturers of washroom accessories and partitions don’t have the experience or bandwidth to meet unique needs, specifying products that adhere to local laws can be a challenge. Careful consideration of product choice will create a safe space or everyone.
Fire standards: There are two standard test methods used to measure level of fire safety of interior finishes. The first, ASTM E-84, tests the surface burning characteristics of building materials using a tunnel test method. The other standard is a rigorous room corner test, performed in accordance with NFPA 286, which measures the contribution of interior finish materials to room fire growth during specified fire exposure conditions. Make sure that you use the most stringent testing methods to meet the highest standard of fire safety.
Partitions make one of the biggest visual and material impacts in the bathroom simply because they take up a lot of the real estate. There are a number of material options: powder coated, stainless steel, solid plastic, plastic laminate, and phenolic. Each has its strengths and weaknesses, and each fulfills a specific task in different bathrooms. The way partitions are mounted can also impact the ease of maintenance and the types of cleaning products one can use. Seeking a source that offers multiple material and construction options will give architects a complete palette to choose from.
Washroom accessories are sometimes viewed as minor, and choices may even be left to a building manager. An important decision is good material choice—specifying washroom accessories only made of type 304 stainless steel, the standard for the washroom industry, will go a long way in sustainability.
Free plastic dispensers or even low-grade dispensing systems offered by some consumable companies, like paper towel or soap suppliers, take away from the overall design intent of the architect.
This can lead to mismatched selections, a misalignment of aesthetics, and it can end up costing the building owner more than if these selections were made by the design team. Getting locked into a contract with a specific brand of consumables that use a free but proprietary dispenser can cause the building owner to be at the mercy of the manufacturer’s supply chain—and we have learned that to be daunting during the upheaval caused by the pandemic of 2020.
One of the challenges for any facility management team is having enough consumables, particularly during high-volume events—that includes keeping soap dispensers filled. Specifying top fill, multi-feed systems can make maintenance fast and cost effective—creating a better occupant experience.
Waste receptacles with the appropriate capacity can make a big difference in improving hygiene at a stadium or even in an airport.
There has been an ongoing debate as to the best choice for drying hands: paper towels or hand dryers. If you speak with a manufacturer that only makes hand dryers, they may never guide you to install a paper towel dispenser even if that may be the better option in a particular use-case. In speaking with a manufacturer of only paper consumables, you may get an opposite, but equally adulterated, opinion.
While the debate may be worth having, choosing a manufacturer that offers both hand dryers and paper towel dispensers will ensure that you get unbiased guidance from your manufacturer’s representative.
High-frequency or high-demand facilities, like stadiums, must be designed with high-capacity dispensers and waste receptacles to create a fluid path of travel through the bathroom and to alleviate long lines.
Stadium owners, public or municipal, will face a negative financial impact as a patron’s time is wasted in a bathroom line, rather than being used to spend money at the checkout line at a concession stand or in a merchandise store.
Public bathrooms must cater to the varied needs of people from different cultures or walks of life.
Accommodating people with heightened needs for privacy or accessibility is important. Having the appropriate products to attract customers is also important—for example, a shopping mall that has plenty of diaper changing stations in both the men’s and women’s bathrooms will undoubtedly attract more families that are in the high-spender demographic.
Foremost on everyone’s mind is hygiene, social distancing, and infection mitigation. The CDC recommends washing hands frequently if we are in a public space, or after sneezing, coughing, or blowing your nose. Our overall hygiene has been left wanting and new solutions and designs are needed.
There are more questions today than answers. Will changes be legislative, or market driven? How do we separate people while still allowing them to meet their fundamental need to be social? Can we expect more pandemics in the future or was this a once-in-a-hundred-year event?
As building owners decide to install these dispensers, careful consideration should be given to whether those dispensers can dispense multiple brands’ consumables so that they are not locked into the supply chain limitations of only one brand.
Finally as buildings and spaces become more multipurpose, people will have to become more nimble and will have to develop the flexibility to work in a state of flux from time to time.
Cyrus Boatwalla, head of marketing at the ASI Group, notes, “we are at one of those inflection points in our existence where the way we react to the present must be balanced with our plan for future events.
We must ensure that we have the ability to work and operate in a more flexible way so that we can maintain safety while not losing the human contact and connections that are so important to us. For that we need to work together not just with our industry but also with other constituents. We welcome the collaboration and we welcome the ability to work with designers all over the world so we can navigate for today and solve for tomorrow.”
Future innovation will come from collaboration between architects, building product manufacturers, building owners, tenants, and government. Leaving any party out will not provide the optimal results.
A well-designed bathroom can be the deciding factor in elevating a building from good to great. Bathrooms, if given the requisite attention to detail, can make a much greater positive impact on the user experience of a building—thus influencing their opinion of the school, the town, the business, the building owner, and the architects who designed the building. Protect your reputation.
Buildings of the future deserve, even demand, future oriented bathroom design.
Department of Architecture: https://www.ibu.edu.ba/department-of-architecture/